X-59 (Hemp Nut)

The X-59 Hemp Nut is one of Terramax’s most stable and well tested crops produced to date.  It is a leader on Western Canadian yield trials.

It is ultra-low in THC and is exempt from THC testing in Canada as of Mar 2015.

It has been shown in many places to be an excellent Super Food, and so, is a great product for innovative farmers.

Terramax has several services available in regards to the X-59 Hemp Nut, including Toll Cleaning and Combine Modifications.


*Good shatter resistance
* Large seed size
* Low dockage
* Very low THC levels
* Moderate season (~100 days), varies with seeding date
* Moderate height
* Seeding rate, 30 lbs per acre
* Direct harvest using conventional equipment
* Thousand seed weight is 22 grams
* Bushel weight is 44 lbs
* Up to 35% oil, 26% protein

Hemp is a highly versatile crop used for food, cosmetics, fuel, feed, and industrial fibre. X-59 (Hemp-Nut) is in demand by processors because it’s large uniform seed results in high kernel yield when dehulled.

It’s dioecious (50% male/50% female). The male and female plants are easily differentiated around 5 weeks after emergence. After pollination, the male plants begin to die, while female seed-bearing plants remain vigorous and green.

Hemp seed oil is valued for human food because of its high content of essential fatty acids (Omega 3, 6 and 9). No other seed offers a more complete and balanced source of proteins, healthy oils, vitamins, minerals, and fibre. Its nutritional benefits are truly impressive.

Choosing land for hemp

Hemp is not a remarkably drought tolerant crop.

Volunteer wheat, barley and buckwheat are nearly impossible to clean out of hemp.

Typically land that produces a good canola crop will produce a good hemp crop. Fertile land with a loam texture that is rich in organic matter with a pH between 6.0 and 7.5 is preferable. The seedbed should be fine, mellow, and uniform. Avoid marginal soils with low fertility, low organic matter, and poorly drained soils.

Select land free of herbicide residues that may injure hemp (Odyssey, Pursuit, Ally, Amber, Assert, Muster, Prism, and Escort).

Green manuring of faba bean, silage peas, clover and alfalfa breaking are used to build fertility in organic production. With alfalfa breaking, the best response comes in the second year as the alfalfa biomass mineralizes.

Cereal and pulse crop stubble are rotation options for hemp. Hemp does best following alfalfa or red clover, but also performs very well following soybeans, sweet clover, legumes, barley, and potatoes. It performs medium to poor following corn, canola, and sunflowers. It should never follow spice crops due to the volunteer crop. Sunflowers and canola also increase sclerotinia pressure on hemp.


Pedigreed seed is required by Health Canada for all hemp production. Crop insurance is available for hemp in Manitoba.

Hemp can be direct seeded into standing stubble. Seed into moist soil and as shallow as possible: 2 cm or (1/2 – 3/4 inch maximum). Good packing assists in quick crop emergence by increasing soil moisture-to-seed contact. Hemp seeds should germinate completely within 10 days. Hemp is frost tolerant at the seedling stage.

Target a plant population of 10 live plants per square foot for grain production. When germination, emergence, and plant mortality are considered the seeding rate is about 30 lbs per acre.

While growers typically target the last week in May, seeding can start as early as the last week in April since hemp is relatively frost tolerant. Warm soils with average temperatures above 5˚C promote rapid emergence. Earlier seeding improves the chance of a higher seed yield. Late planting (first 2 weeks in June), to avoid weed flushes or flooding have frequently resulted in good production.

A slight crust on the ground frequently results in a poor stand. If after seeding, and before the seedling emerges, the ground crusts badly, it may be advisable to roll the field to break the crust.


Nutrient requirements fluctuate with variety; yield targets, environmental conditions (moisture and temperature and soil characteristics (soil type, available soil nutrients).

From grower’s experience, hemp responds to high fertility levels similar to canola.
For example, a 45bu/ac canola crop requires 145 lbs/ac nitrogen, 32 lbs/ac phosphorous, 100 lbs/ac potassium, and 28 lbs/ac sulfur.

Liquid side banding nitrogen is acceptable for hemp as long as the seed and fertilizer are separated. No more than 15 lbs/ac of phosphorous should be applied with the seed.

Foliar application of nitrogen is not recommended.

Weed Management

The first flush of weeds can be controlled using glyphosate pre-seed burn-off. A uniform stand that emerges ahead of weeds is important.

Selection of weed-free fields, and pre-emergence herbicides have proven successful in low till situations. Perennial weeds should be controlled in the year previous to planting hemp.
Herbicides have been identified but not registered for use on hemp in Western Canada.

Potential problem weeds are wild buckwheat, pigweed, wild oats, volunteer wheat, coriander and spice crops.

Volunteer wheat, barley and buckwheat are difficult to clean out of hemp and can cause a rejection of the hemp lot by processors.


As X-59 (Hemp-Nut) matures the seeds turn tan-brown and the seeds will be resistant to compression. At the 10-15 percent moisture level the large outer green leaves on the plant will turn brown and fall off.

Once hemp dries down too far, many cultivars become vulnerable to shatter loss after high wind turbulence.

Combine cleanout prior to harvest is a must. Residual grain in hoppers and cross augers can cause contamination resulting in significant downgrading and product rejection (use vacuums and air hoses for cleanout).

Swathing offers many additional challenges and should generally be avoided.

Direct harvesting:

Most producers are choosing to straight cut X-59 (Hemp-Nut). For easy throughput (reduced wrapping) combine at 15 to12 % moisture. A draper header is preferable because of even feeding of the material into the combine and reduced losses.

Newer model combines such as CIH 8010’s and JD 9770 STS’s are handling hemp better than their predecessors. NH CX860 and NHCX880 and the newer series are working fine (cover the final drive shaft to prevent wrapping). Wrapping can be eliminated on the JD 9770 by doubling the rear speed of the rear beater by replacing the drive pulley and belt. Bypass the chopper if possible.

Reduce rotor cylinder speeds (rotor RPM 500-550, wind 650 as a general guideline) and adjust concave to minimize cracking the seed coat and splitting the seed.

Hemp dust is sticky and can be ignited by static electricity so a chain should be dragged from the combine to dissipate the static to avoid fire.

Conveyors are recommended if available. Low–sloped transfer augers are acceptable. Augers should be operated full and at slow speeds to reduce potential dehulling and seed splitting.


A hemp moisture chart is available from the Canadian Grain Commission. The moisture calibration setting is 73. High moisture hemp will heat and spoil quickly. For long term storage, store at less than 8% moisture.

It is important to dry hemp down immediately with aeration after combining and turn the grain to eliminate any hotspots or moisture that could collect near the bin wall. Very high capacity fans and filling bins half full initially is advisable to prevent spoilage.

Hemp is an oilseed and must be handled and stored in a manner similar to other oilseed crops such as canola and flax. Turning the grain by pulling a load out of the hopper bin is helpful to cool the grain.

Licensing and THC testing

A license is required to grow hemp. Hemp regulations are administered by Health Canada. Possession of hemp parts or products without the appropriate license is a criminal offense. Cultivation of hemp is not permitted within one km of a place frequented by people under 18 years of age (eg. A school). Licenses are issued for one calendar year.

Producers applying for a license to cultivate hemp require the following:
Application checklist:

Schedule 1 License to Cultivate Industrial Hemp
Schedule 5 License to distribute.
Schedule 6 Information on Officers, Directors, and/or Partners (if corporation or partnership)
Schedule 9 Authorization to Possess Industrial Hemp (if other than the person named in Schedule 1)
Global Positioning System coordinates of the corners of the hemp production area; minimum four hectares (10 ac) per set of coordinates.
Map of hemp production area showing recognizable landmarks and roads
Name of hemp variety to be grown
Police security clearance – done by Health Canada if not supplied.

Application forms and instructions for their completion are available at the Health Canada website: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/pubs/precurs/hemp_app-chanvre_dem-eng.php

Producers are responsible to have all hemp fields sampled by a Health Canada- accredited sampler.

The sample is submitted for THC analysis at the producers cost to prove THC levels are below 0.3 percent.

All seeding and harvesting equipment must be thoroughly cleaned before leaving the licensed hemp field. Records must be kept for a minimum of two years.